The Pan-Chro Scope was an inexpensive stereoscope made from cardboard. (1917-1924)

Australia's ANZAC Diggers weren't the only soldiers in the Great War to sport 'slouch hats'. First worn in the Zulu Wars in Africa by British troops in 1880, these hats were worn by the Canadian Yukon Field Forces (1898-1900) and the Canadian Pacific Railway Militia as well as, apparently, some units during the first World War. The hat was worn pinned-up on one side so as not to interfere with the shouldering of a rifle

My Grandfather, Arthur Wachsmuth was one of Canada's early aviators and flew D.H. 60 Moths (amongst other aircraft) between the World Wars. An original "Barnstormer", his time spent in open cockpit planes would damage his hearing rendering him ineligible for service in the second World War.

• anaglyph view below: click to enlarge •

My Grandfather also helped to inspire my love of stereoscopic imagery. He owned a classic Model C bakelite View-Master™ with many reels. I was fortunate enough to inherit this collection.

scan from Toronto Public Library
The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander MacDonald Prime Minister 1867-1873 / 1878-1891
Canada's first Prime Minister and a Father of Confederation, Macdonald was instrumental in bringing together the original provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Later he ensured that Prince Edward Island, British Columbia and the North West Territories were brought into the Canadian Confederation thereby expanding the Dominion from sea to sea to sea. Also instrumental in the building of the Trans-Canadian railroad, the formation of the North-West Mounted Police and the creation of the British North America Act, Macdonald's legacy as a true Founding Father is assured. Born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1815, his family immigrated to Canada when he was five and settled in Kingston, Upper Canada (Ontario). He died while in office in 1891 and is buried in his family plot at the Cataraqui Cemetery in Kingston, Ontario - the city in which he began his political career as an alderman nearly fifty years before. See below for anaglyph photo of Macdonald's gravesite.

• anaglyph photo: Sir John A. Macdonald Gravesite •
National Historic Site of Canada - Formally Recognized May, 19 1938

Canadian troops and the German Sixth Army fought along the outskirts of Lens in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France in the summer of 1917. This was to be known as the Battle of Hill 70. The Canadian's hope in attacking was to draw German troops away from the 3rd Battle of Ypres and they were partially successful in this goal. Poison gas was used by both sides in this battle which resulted in high casualties.

scan from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. USA
The Right Honourable Sir Wilfred Laurier Prime Minister 1896 - 1911.
Canada's first Francophone Prime Minister, Laurier was elected to the House of Commons in 1874. He would serve in the House for a record 45 years until 1919 when he died in office as Leader of the Opposition. Sir Wilfred Laurier is remembered as one of Canada's greatest statesmen. In the words of J. Gilbert Elliot (Lord Minto), Laurier was, "by far the biggest man in Canada." Over one hundred years later, McLean's Magazine would agree, ranking him as Canada's greatest Prime Minister. Here Prime Minister Laurier attends the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri (1904). He is accompanied by Exposition President, David R. Francis and "children of every nation". The exposition included many other notable guests, speakers and visitors such as: John Philip Sousa, Thomas Edison, T.S. Eliot, Helen Keller, Geronimo, Henri Poincaré and Jack Daniel. Shortly after this photo was taken, Laurier would oversee Alberta and Saskatchewan's entry into Confederation.

scan from Toronto Public Library
Colonel Sam Hughes is seen here preparing for the 1901 visit to Toronto of the future King George V. Hughes was born in Solina near Bowmanville, ON and later attended the University of Toronto. He was already a distinguished soldier when he moved to Lindsey, ON and bought the local newspaper, The Victoria Warder. In 1892 Hughes was elected to parliament. He fought in the second Boer War in 1899 and was later instrumental in helping to create a distinct Canadian armed forces within the British Empire.

adapted from photo by Ontario's Historical Plaques

In 1901,while he was the Duke of York and Cornwall, Prince George toured much of the British Empire. This trip included visits to both Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland. He was crowned king on May 6, 1910 and King George V ruled through WW1 and until his death in 1936. George was one of Queen Victoria's grandsons and a first cousin to Russia's Tsar Nicholas II. In 1917 he would issue a proclamation to change the British Royal Family's official name to Windsor which replaced the historically German name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.  (Thereby appeasing a British public who still held anti-German sentiments following the Great War.) 

"Wolfe / Montcalm:  Mortem Virtus Commuem Famam Historia Monumentum Posteritas Dedit."
Thus reads an inscription on this monument located in the Governors' Garden beside the Chateau Frontenac Hotel in Quebec City. "Their courage gave them a common death, history a common fame, posterity a common memorial." The shared monument commemorates the lives of two great generals (British General James Wolfe and the commander of French troops and Canadian militia, General Louis-Joseph Marquis de Montcalm) who met their end at the pivotal conflict of the Seven Year's War - the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. Wolfe, although victorious, perished in the battle. Montcalm, defeated, succumbed to his injuries the next morning.

The Second Boer War (also known as The South African War) 1899-1902, represented Canada's first official dispatch of troops to a war oversees. The conflict began in 1899 between the British army and Dutch (Boer) settlers and led Britain to request help from her colonies. Prime minister Wilfred Laurier agreed to send volunteers to serve under British command. Among the 8,000 young Canadians to enlist was a young medical school graduate named John McCrae (see A18.) McCae would survive to serve again in the Great War (and to pen "In Flanders Fields") but 267 Canadians were killed in the Second Boer War in which British forces were ultimately victorious.

image provided by Jeffrey Kraus
Built in Quebec in 1871, the USS Tigress was constructed as a whaling ship with her home port in St. John's Newfoundland. The ship proved to be extremely well suited for Arctic waters. So much so, that in 1873 she was charted by the U.S. Navy for service in rescuing the Polaris. (An American steamer which was part of the Hall Scientific Expedition to the Arctic Ocean) The Tigress and her crew rescued 19 American sailors on the Polaris from an ice flow in Baffin Bay in May of 1873.

G. Beurling photo source • Wikipedia

digital reproduction from the Canadian War Memorials Fund
Alexander Young Jackson was a Canadian painter and founding member of the Group of Seven. Jackson served in the Canadian Army's 60th battalion in 1915 and was wounded in the Battle of Sanctuary Wood. He was transferred to the Canadian War Records branch as an artist and would go on to paint many significant works documenting the horror of the First World War. A Copse, Evening is among his most important pieces and illustrates the war's devastation on the natural landscape. Here, this classic piece of Canadian war art has been given the 3D treatment.

• anaglyph view below: click to enlarge •

The owners of the Toronto photography studio and graphic design shop, A Nerd's World, recently made an historic discovery in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Chris and Grace Hughes make a habit of collecting vintage and antique cameras and developing the film found inside. In this case they discovered a Verascope Stereo Camera (a hand-held stereoscopic camera made in Paris by Jules Richard, 1848-1930) with several First World War era glass stereo slides included. Chris writes, "The camera is in pristine condition and included the original leather carrying case and glass slides. Each slide is a piece of history in photographic form and I get shivers every time I place a glass slide into the 3D stereo viewer. Only at A Nerd’s World, 986 Bathurst St. can you see the 3D stereo camera, viewer, and actual World War I slides in person – leaving you with an experience you’ll never forget."

• Two of these slides are featured below (A14. and A15.) •

image provided by A Nerd's World
Mouilly is a commune (township) in the Meuse department of France. It is located within the north-eastern area of the country - the historically, highly-contested Lorraine region. The Battle of Verdun occurred within this region in 1916, lasting for nearly 10 months. It ended with a French tactical victory but total casualties for both sides have been estimated at over 900,000 - making this one of the most devastating battles in the history of warfare. 

image provided by A Nerd's World
The tanks pictured here are the famous Renault FT make. Their design was revolutionary for the time and so influential that their basic configuration (crew in front, engine in back, revolving turret) remains the standard for tank design today. Alongside the tanks, a uniformed cyclist is seen. Bicycle-mounted infantry, scouts, messengers and even ambulance carriers were used by all nations during the Great War. The Canadian 1st Divisional Cyclist Company were organized and trained under Captain R.S. Robinson in Valcartier, Quebec. In February of 1915, the nearly 100 man strong unit was sent to serve in France. The Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion was eventually disbanded in 1920.

This Canadian designed and built tank resides in front of the Beatty St. Drill Hall in Vancouver, BC. The Hall is a Canadian Forces armoury and is home to the British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own). The following is inscribed on the plaque at this site - 620 Beatty St. Vancouver.

                                                                            composed with images from the McCord Museum

The famed "Maple Box" collection consists of approximately 150 stereoviews featuring picturesque scenes of Ontario and Quebec as well as images documenting the construction of the Victoria Bridge in Montréal. This collection was beautifully packaged in two burgundy morocco leather portfolios, titled Canada East and Canada West and housed in a box with bird's-eye maple veneer which included a hand-held stereo viewer. The set was presented as a gift to the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII) in 1860 upon his visit to Canada by the photographer William Notman who made a duplicate set which he exhibited to the public and photographed in stereo.

This presentation of the original set to the Prince was described in a series of letters between William Notman and various government officials. The whereabouts of the original set is unknown. The duplicate set resides at the McCord Museum in Montréal, QC.    Source: "Notman's Maple Box," Stereo World, Jan/Feb 1997, Vol. 23, No. 6

                                                             "A Gift Fit For a Prince: The Maple Box"

The photographer of the Maple Box Stereoviews, William Notman was a pioneering and highly successful Canadian photographer who saw that photography could be used as a means of documenting history.

This video clip is taken from an excellent documentary portrait on Notman and his studio entitled, Notman's Canada: Photographer to the Queen, produced by PTV Productions Inc., in conjunction with the McCord Museum.

• One of the Victoria Bridge Stereoviews from this set is featured below (A17.) •

Men destroying coffer dam crib, Victoria Bridge, Montreal, QC, 1859 William Notman (1826-1891) 1859, 19th century Silver salts on paper 
mounted on card - Albumen process 7.3 x 14 cm Gift of Mr. James Geoffrey Notman N-0000.193.96.1-2 © McCord Museum

scan from Oshawa Community Archives • A998.21.2n
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
      Between the crosses, row on row,
   That mark our place; and in the sky
   The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
   Loved and were loved, and now we lie
 In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
   The torch; be yours to hold it high.
   If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
 In Flanders fields.

Written by Lieutenant Colonel Dr. John Alexander McCrae on May 3, 1915, following the Second Battle of Ypres.

J. McCrae photo source • Wikipedia


This card's title (and text on the back) is taken directly from Longfellow's epic poem, Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie which romanticizes "Le Grand Dérangement" or the Expulsion of the Acadians (1755 - 1764). During this time the Francophone Acadian people were forcibly removed by the British from their homes in Nova Scotia as well as New Brunswick, and P.E.I. This mass expulsion was undertaken as a result of resistance to British occupation of the area then known as Acadie. No distinction was made between those who resisted and those who were neutral. In all, nearly 12,000 people were deported. Many of these French-speaking deportees would eventually find their way to Louisiana where the term Acadian would become shortened to "Cajun".

While this stereoview is undated, the language used here reveals it to be quite dated indeed. Obviously, there is no such group as the "Totem Pole Indians". Furthermore, the term "Totem Pole" was coined by European settlers to the B.C. coast and is based on an Ojibwa word, "ototeman". The use of the word to describe the heraldic columns of the Northwest Coast is inaccurate. The Haida word for these monumental sculptures carved from the Western Red Cedar is Gyáa'aang. These examples, however, appear to have been created by the Kwakwaka'wakw people - based on the style of the work and the fact that the location of Alert Bay is cited. The village is on Cormorant Island in the Queen Charlotte Strait on the Central Coast of British Columbia which is traditional Kwakwaka'wakw territory. 

• See (A21.) for another beautiful example of Kwakwaka'wakw work •

scan from Toronto Public Library
At the time this stereo photo was taken, Yonge St. was the longest street in the world. At 1, 896 km in length, its status remained so until 1997 when changes to the way the Ministry of Ontario managed provincial roadways were made and the responsibility for certain roads was shifted from provincial to municipal jurisdiction. 

The inclusion of this slide gives me the opportunity to show this pen and ink illustration by my favourite Canadian illustrator, C.W. Jefferys which depicts Yonge St. as it may have looked one hundred years earlier. This image was published in Jefferys' book, The Picture Gallery of Canadian History which was a favourite of mine as a child -  and remains so today! The volume can be viewed online in its entirety here.

Jefferys, C.W. (1942). The Picture Gallery of Canadian History Vol 2

Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothéque et Archives Canada

The illustrator behind this poster is unknown but clearly it is inspired by the famous Lord Kitchener work by Alfred Leete (pictured below). J. M. Flagg's "Uncle Sam" recruitment poster was derived from Leete's original work as well. This Canadian piece which encourages citizens to buy war bonds to support Canada's war effort seems like a natural fit for the 3D treatment on this site.
• see below for anaglyph view •

            Alfred Leete (1914)                     J.M. Flagg (1917)  image sources • Wikipedia


                                                                                • click to enlarge •

scan from the NY Public Library
Misspelled on this slide, the Chilkoot trail stretches 50km from Dyea, Alaska U.S. to Bennett, B.C. Canada. Originally used by the Tlingit people as a trade route, the trail became the most popular route from the coast to Canada's interior during The Klondike Gold Rush (1896 - 1899). The trail would prove too difficult for many prospective prospectors and some did not survive the journey. The stereo photo here was taken at "The Scales" (number 6 on the map below). So named as the area served as a weight station before the arduous climb up the "Golden Stairs" to the pass which can be seen in the distance (number 7-8 on the map below). Who better to describe the trail than Pierre Berton. The following quote is from his definitive book, Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896 - 1989.

"It could be reached only after a thousand foot climb up a thirty-five degree slope strewn with immense boulders and caked, for eight months out of twelve, with solid ice. Glaciers of bottle green overhung it like prodigious icicles ready to burst at summer’s end; avalanches thundered from the mountain in the spring; and in the winter the snow fell so thickly that it could reach a depth of seventy feet. This forbidding gap was called the Chilkoot Pass…"
The trail today is popular with hikers seeking a challenge in the spirit of 1896 - this includes yours truly (see photo below).

Your webmaster navigating the "Golden Stairs" (2000)      map image source • U.S. National Park Service    


scan from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. USA
"Only a white man would carry a boat over a mountain." One unnamed Tagish observer was reported to have said when witnessing a spectacle such as the scene above. While the Chilkoot trail ends at Lake Bennett, the stampeders of the late 1890's would still have to travel down the Yukon River to Dawson City and on to the gold fields.
Boats were either carried over the pass (usually in pieces to be reassembled later), or were made using a technique called "whipsawing" once over the pass. The area around Lake Lindeman and Lake Bennett was stripped of trees for this purpose. The impact these campers and boatbuilders had on the terrain is still visible toady.

"Knock-down boats of every conceivable sort are being taken up since the reports have come down that boat timber is very scarce, as well as high in price. . . . Reports are discouraging about (carrying) boats. The trails up the mountains are reported so narrow and tortuous that long pieces cannot be carried over. In that case (mine) may never get over. Hundreds of boats, it is said, are left behind."    Tappan AdneyThe Klondike Stampede (1900)

scan from the NY Public Library
This card's title would indicate that Dawson City is in Alaska. It is, of course, in Yukon, Canada. The copy on the card's back clarifies this as well as providing some excellent information on the city. The "perfect order and control over thousands of rough and lawless ones", was maintained by the North-West Mounted Police. Additionlly, they were also instrumental in holding the Yukon border from infringement by the Americans during the Klondike Gold Rush. The final word on this period comes from the Bard of the Yukon himself, Robert Service...

Robert Service - excerpt from The Spell of the YukonSongs of a Sourdough (1907)

Canadian troops used the same field artillery as did the British during the first World War - from the light and mobile, Horse Artillery to the heavy, Garrison Artillery. Anti-Aircraft Artillery would be developed and used as the significance of 'aeroplanes' became recognized during the War. Various sizes of Stokes and Newton Trench Mortars were also employed by Canadian troops.

The French made, Nieuport aeroplanes were used extensively by most allied nations during the First World War - including Canadian flying ace, William Avery (Billy) Bishop who, with 72 victories, was Canada's top WW1 ace.
Upon joining the 60th Squadron, Bishop piloted the Nieuport 17 which featured a single gun mounted on top of the upper wing. It was in this aircraft that Bishop shot down three German aircrafts on June 2, 1917. For this feat he was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC). See (A30.) for more on this incident. The Nieuport planes were preferred by many WW1 pilots due to their sensitive controls and maneuverability. In fact, Bishop continued to fly a Nieuport 23 even after that aircraft was considered obsolete.

W.A. Bishop seated in the cockpit of his Nieuport 17. (composed from photo by Honorary Lieut. William Rider-Rider MBE)

Born February 8, 1894 in Owen Sound, Ontario, William A. Bishop attended the Royal Military College in Kingston Ontario. Although he did not graduate, when war broke out in 1914 he was still commissioned as an officer. Seeing service in the skies as a better alternative to the trenches, he transferred to the British Royal Flying Corps in 1915. It would prove a fateful decision. By the war's end Bishop would be credited with 72 official victories - the most of any pilot in the British Empire during the Great War. Ultimately, he would be awarded: the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Victoria Cross, Distinguished Service Order and Bar, and Military Cross. Bishop was withdrawn from active duty prior to the war's end for fear that his being killed in action would be detrimental to morale at home. He consequently returned home to pen, Winged Warfare. (1st edition pictured above) During WWII, he was appointed Air Marshal and assisted with recruitment and establishment of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Years later he would attempt to enlist in the RCAF during the Korean War. His offer was politley declined. Bishop passed away in 1956 and was interred in his family plot in Owen Sound. 

• His childhood home (which is now a National Historic Site) is pictured below •

"Dawn Attack" Oil Painting by Robert William Bradford (C.M.) a pioneering Canadian Aviation Artist who help to found the Canadian Aviation Museum.(photo from the Canadian Aviation Historical Society)

Bradford's oil painting depicts W.A. Bishop's solo raid on June 2, 1917 which would earn him the Victoria Cross.
The following is the citation published in the London Gazette on August 11, 1917: "For most conspicuous bravery, determination, and skill. Captain Bishop, who had been sent out to work independently, flew first of all to an enemy aerodrome; finding no machines about, he flew on to another aerodrome about 3 miles southeast, which was at least 12 miles the other side of the line. Seven machines, some with their engines running, were on the ground. He attacked these from about fifty feet, and a mechanic, who was starting one of the engines, was seen to fall. One of the machines got off the ground, but at a height of 60 feet, Captain Bishop fired 15 rounds into it at very close range, and it crashed to the ground. A second machine got off the ground, into which he fired 30 rounds at 150 yards range, and it fell into a tree. Two more machines then rose from the aerodrome. One of these he engaged at a height of 1,000 feet, emptying the rest of his drum of ammunition. This machine crashed 300 yards from the aerodrome, after which Captain Bishop emptied a whole drum into the fourth hostile machine, and then flew back to his station. Four hostile scouts were about 1,000 feet above him for about a mile of his return journey, but they would not attack. His machine was very badly shot about from the ground." 

• anaglyph view below: click to enlarge •

                                                                              Much more to come...